Genetic variation in complement component 2 of the classical complement pathway is associated with increased mortality and infection: a study of 627 patients with trauma.
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a disease of inflammation. Complement Component 2 (C2) is a protease involved in activation of complement through the classical pathway and has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. We hypothesized that genetic variation in C2 (E318D) identifies a high-risk subgroup of patients with trauma reflecting increased mortality and infection (ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP]). Consequently, genetic variation in C2 may stratify patient risk and illuminate underlying mechanisms for therapeutic intervention.
METHODS: DNA samples from 702 patients with trauma were genotyped for C2 E318D and linked with covariates (age: mean 42.8 years, gender: 74% male, ethnicity: 80% white, mechanism: 84% blunt, injury severity score: mean 25.0, admission lactate: mean 3.13 mEq/L) and outcomes: mortality 9.9% and VAP: 18.5%. VAP was defined by quantitative bronchoalveolar lavage (> 10). Multivariate regression analysis determined the relationship of genotype and covariates to risk of death and VAP. However, patients with injury severity score > or = 45 were excluded from the multivariate analysis, as magnitude of injury overwhelms genetics and covariates in determining outcome.
RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (8.3%) had the high-risk heterozygous genotype, associated with a significant increase in mortality and VAP.
CONCLUSION: In 702 patients with trauma, 8.3% had a high-risk genetic variation in C2 associated with increased mortality (odds ratio = 2.65) and infection (odds ratio = 2.00). This variation: (1) identifies a previously unknown high-risk group for infection and mortality; (2) can be determined at admission; (3) may provide opportunity for early therapeutic intervention; and (4) requires validation in a distinct cohort of patients.
Published In/Presented At
Morris, J. A., Jr, Francois, C., Olson, P. K., Cotton, B. A., Summar, M., Jenkins, J. M., Norris, P. R., Moore, J. H., Williams, A. E., McNew, B. S., & Canter, J. A. (2009). Genetic variation in complement component 2 of the classical complement pathway is associated with increased mortality and infection: a study of 627 patients with trauma. The Journal of trauma, 66(5), 1265–1272. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e31819ea61a
Anesthesiology | Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Anesthesiology