Mitral Valve Replacement: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations in Low and High-Risk Patients.

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Mitral Regurgitation (MR) is the most common form of severe valvular disease occurring in developed countries, being caused either primarily on its own or secondary to cardiac disease. Surgical intervention is required for the correction of MR, which could include the replacement or repair of the affected valve. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement (TMVR) in selected patients is of increasing importance, especially after the success of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR). TMVR can be divided into three types i.e., valve-in-valve (ViV) for severe mitral valve disease, valve-in-ring (ViR) for failed surgical repairs, and valve-in-mitral annular calcifications (ViMAC) for mitral valvular disease with severe mitral annular calcifications and poor surgical criteria. The FDA approved Mitral ViV for patients with a high surgical risk in 2017, while ViR and ViMAC are still currently under consideration. The SAPIEN M3 valve is relatively new with a trans-septal system, with a success rate of 86%, and no mortality in a 30-day outcome. The Cardiovalve is a bovine pericardium device that has a dual nitinol frame with a custom surgical design to facilitate TMVR. The AHEAD trial will evaluate whether the device is safe to use in a clinical setting and how effective it is for reducing MR in these patients. The trial consists of 30 patients in which the first 5 patients showed 100% technical success and a reduction of MR. This evolution of modern medicine has assisted in many different countries, including Pakistan where there is a higher prevalence of MR and hence, a greater need to apply TMVR in clinical practice.

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Medicine and Health Sciences




Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine Fellows and Residents

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