Preoperative Three-Dimensional Valve Analysis Predicts Recurrent Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation After Mitral Annuloplasty.
BACKGROUND: Valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with undersized annuloplasty rings is characterized by high IMR recurrence rates. Patient-specific preoperative imaging-based risk stratification for recurrent IMR would optimize results. We sought to determine if prerepair three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography combined with a novel valve-modeling algorithm would be predictive of IMR recurrence 6 months after repair.
METHODS: Intraoperative transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized ring annuloplasty for IMR and in 21 patients with normal mitral valves. A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess 3D annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. IMR recurrence (≥ grade 2) was assessed with two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography 6 months after repair.
RESULTS: Preoperative annular geometry was similar in all IMR patients, and preoperative leaflet tethering was significantly higher in patients with recurrent IMR (n=13) than in patients in whom IMR did not recur (n=37) (tethering index: 3.91 ± 1.01 vs 2.90 ± 1.17, p = 0.008; tethering angles of A3: 23.5° ± 8.9° vs 14.4° ± 11.4°, p = 0.012; P2: 44.4° ± 8.8° vs 28.2° ± 17.0°, p = 0.002; and P3: 35.2° ± 6.0° vs. 18.6° ± 12.7°, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the preoperative P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of IMR recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.00; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: 3D echocardiography combined with valve modeling is predictive of recurrent IMR. Preoperative regional leaflet tethering of segment P3 is a strong independent predictor of IMR recurrence after undersized ring annuloplasty. In patients with a preoperative P3 tethering angle of 29.9° or larger, chordal-sparing valve replacement rather than valve repair should be strongly considered.
Published In/Presented At
Bouma, W., Lai, E. K., Levack, M. M., Shang, E. K., Pouch, A. M., Eperjesi, T. J., Plappert, T. J., Yushkevich, P. A., Mariani, M. A., Khabbaz, K. R., Gleason, T. G., Mahmood, F., Acker, M. A., Woo, Y. J., Cheung, A. T., Jackson, B. M., Gorman, J. H., 3rd, & Gorman, R. C. (2016). Preoperative Three-Dimensional Valve Analysis Predicts Recurrent Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation After Mitral Annuloplasty. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 101(2), 567–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.09.076
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division