The dynamic anterior mitral annulus.
BACKGROUND: The anterior mitral annulus is considered a fixed structure. Recent data suggest otherwise. This study tested the hypothesis that the size of the anterior annulus varies with hemodynamic loading and ventricular contractility.
METHODS: Sonomicrometry array localization measured annular area, total annular circumference, anterior circumference, and posterior circumference in 6 sheep before and after neosynephrine increased systolic blood pressure by at least 150% during atrial pacing at 120 beats/min. In 6 additional animals the same dimensions were measured during atrial pacing (at 120 and 150 beats/min) and during isoproteronol infusions to increase heart rate to 120 and 150 beats/min.
RESULTS: Neosynephrine increased systolic total annular circumference from 99.7 +/- 5.5 mm to 106.9 +/- 9.6 mm. Anterior circumference increased from 40.8 +/- 4.0 mm to 45.3 +/- 5.7 mm whereas posterior circumference only increased from 59.0 +/- 5.5 mm to 61.6 +/- 7.0 mm. Low isoproteronol infusion decreased systolic total annular circumference from 107.5 +/- 8.3 mm to 101.9 +/- 10.6 mm. Most of this change occurred in the posterior circumference. Higher infusions of isoproteronol decreased total annular circumference from 106.8 +/- 8.3 mm to 98.3 +/- 9.7 mm. At this higher inotropic state the decrease in annular size was similar in the anterior and posterior annulus.
CONCLUSIONS: In sheep, the anterior annulus is a dynamic structure that varies in size in response to changes in hemodynamic loading and ventricular contractility.
Published In/Presented At
Parish, L. M., Jackson, B. M., Enomoto, Y., Gorman, R. C., & Gorman, J. H., 3rd (2004). The dynamic anterior mitral annulus. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 78(4), 1248–1255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.04.055
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division