Apolipoprotein B, Residual Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Effects of Alirocumab.
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein B (apoB) provides an integrated measure of atherogenic risk. Whether apoB levels and apoB lowering hold incremental predictive information on residual risk after acute coronary syndrome beyond that provided by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is uncertain.
METHODS: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) compared the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin therapy. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal/nonfatal ischemic stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina). Associations between baseline apoB or apoB at 4 months and MACE were assessed in adjusted Cox proportional hazards and propensity score-matched models.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. In proportional hazards analysis in the placebo group, MACE incidence increased across increasing baseline apoB strata (3.2 [95% CI, 2.9-3.6], 4.0 [95% CI, 3.6-4.5], and 5.5 [95% CI, 5.0-6.1] events per 100 patient-years in strata
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins, MACE increased across baseline apoB strata. Alirocumab reduced MACE across all strata of baseline apoB, with larger absolute reductions in patients with higher baseline levels. Lower achieved apoB was associated with lower risk of MACE, even after accounting for achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, indicating that apoB provides incremental information. Achievement of apoB levels as low as ≤35 mg/dL may reduce lipoprotein-attributable residual risk after acute coronary syndrome.
REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.
CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
Published In/Presented At
Hagström, E., Steg, P. G., Szarek, M., Bhatt, D. L., Bittner, V. A., Danchin, N., Diaz, R., Goodman, S. G., Harrington, R. A., Jukema, J. W., Liberopoulos, E., Marx, N., McGinniss, J., Manvelian, G., Pordy, R., Scemama, M., White, H. D., Zeiher, A. M., Schwartz, G. G., & ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Investigators (2022). Apolipoprotein B, Residual Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Effects of Alirocumab. Circulation, 146(9), 657–672. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057807
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division