Alternative Markers of Performance in Simulation: Where We Are and Where We Need To Go.

Ann M. Willemsen-Dunlap PhD, CRNA
Emily S. Binstadt MD, MPH
Michael C. Nguyen MD, Lehigh Valley Health Network
Nicole Elliott DO, Lehigh Valley Health Network
Alan R. Cheney MD
Ronald H. Stevens PhD
Suzanne Dooley-Hash MD


This article on alternative markers of performance in simulation is the product of a session held during the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change Through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes." There is a dearth of research on the use of performance markers other than checklists, holistic ratings, and behaviorally anchored rating scales in the simulation environment. Through literature review, group discussion, and consultation with experts prior to the conference, the working group defined five topics for discussion: 1) establishing a working definition for alternative markers of performance, 2) defining goals for using alternative performance markers, 3) implications for measurement when using alternative markers, identifying practical concerns related to the use of alternative performance markers, and 5) identifying potential for alternative markers of performance to validate simulation scenarios. Five research propositions also emerged and are summarized.