Atrasentan and renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (SONAR): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Short-term treatment for people with type 2 diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes.
METHODS: We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18-85 years with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m
FINDINGS: Between May 17, 2013, and July 13, 2017, 11 087 patients were screened; 5117 entered the enrichment period, and 4711 completed the enrichment period. Of these, 2648 patients were responders and were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group (n=1325) or placebo group (n=1323). Median follow-up was 2·2 years (IQR 1·4-2·9). 79 (6·0%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 105 (7·9%) of 1323 in the placebo group had a primary composite renal endpoint event (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·49-0·88]; p=0·0047). Fluid retention and anaemia adverse events, which have been previously attributed to endothelin receptor antagonists, were more frequent in the atrasentan group than in the placebo group. Hospital admission for heart failure occurred in 47 (3·5%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 34 (2·6%) of 1323 patients in the placebo group (HR 1·33 [95% CI 0·85-2·07]; p=0·208). 58 (4·4%) patients in the atrasentan group and 52 (3·9%) in the placebo group died (HR 1·09 [95% CI 0·75-1·59]; p=0·65).
INTERPRETATION: Atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were selected to optimise efficacy and safety. These data support a potential role for selective endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of developing end-stage kidney disease.
Published In/Presented At
Heerspink, H. J. L., Parving, H. H., Andress, D. L., Bakris, G., Correa-Rotter, R., Hou, F. F., Kitzman, D. W., Kohan, D., Makino, H., McMurray, J. J. V., Melnick, J. Z., Miller, M. G., Pergola, P. E., Perkovic, V., Tobe, S., Yi, T., Wigderson, M., de Zeeuw, D., & SONAR Committees and Investigators (2019). Atrasentan and renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (SONAR): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet (London, England), 393(10184), 1937–1947. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30772-X
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine