Scoping review of disease-modifying effect of drugs in experimental epilepsy.

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OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy affects ~50 million people worldwide causing significant medical, financial, and sociologic concerns for affected patients and their families. To date, treatment of epilepsy is primarily symptomatic management because few effective preventative or disease-modifying interventions exist. However, recent research has identified neurobiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis, providing new pharmacologic targets to investigate. The current scientific evidence remains scattered across multiple studies using different model and experimental designs. The review compiles different models of anti-epileptogenic investigation and highlights specific compounds with potential epileptogenesis-modifying experimental drugs. It provides a platform for standardization of future epilepsy research to allow a more robust compound analysis of compounds with potential for epilepsy prevention.

METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Science were searched from 2007 to 2021. Studies with murine models of epileptogenesis and explicitly detailed experimental procedures were included in the scoping review. In total, 51 articles were selected from 14,983 and then grouped by five core variables: (1) seizure frequency, (2) seizure severity, (3) spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), (4) seizure duration, and (5) mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). The variables were differentiated based on experimental models including methods of seizure induction, treatment schedule and timeline of data collection. Data was categorized by the five core variables and analyzed by converting original treatment values to units of percent of its respective control.

RESULTS: Discrepancies in current epileptogenesis models significantly complicate inter-study comparison of potential anti-epileptogenic interventions. With our analysis, many compounds showed a potential to reduce epileptogenic characteristics defined by the five core variables. WIN55,212-2, aspirin, rapamycin, 1400W, and LEV + BQ788 were identified compounds with the potential of effective anti-epileptic properties.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our review highlights the need for consistent methodology in epilepsy research and provides a novel approach for future research. Inconsistent experimental designs hinder study comparison, slowing the progression of treatments for epilepsy. If the research community can optimize and standardize parameters such as methods of seizure induction, administration schedule, sampling time, and aniMal models, more robust meta-analysis and collaborative research would follow. Additionally, some compounds such as rapamycin, WIN 55,212-2, aspirin, 1400W, and LEV + BQ788 showed anti-epileptogenic modulation across multiple variables. We believe they warrant further study both individually and synergistically.



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Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Emergency Medicine

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