Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection, Bacteremia, and Meningitis Among Febrile Infants Aged 8 to 60 Days With SARS-CoV-2.
IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, and bacterial meningitis in febrile infants with SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown. Knowledge of the prevalence of these bacterial infections among febrile infants with SARS-CoV-2 can inform clinical decision-making.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of UTI, bacteremia, and bacterial meningitis among febrile infants aged 8 to 60 days with SARS-CoV-2 vs without SARS-CoV-2.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a quality improvement initiative at 106 hospitals in the US and Canada. Participants included full-term, previously healthy, well-appearing infants aged 8 to 60 days without bronchiolitis and with a temperature of at least 38 °C who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing in the emergency department or hospital between November 1, 2020, and October 31, 2022. Statistical analysis was performed from September 2022 to March 2023.
EXPOSURES: SARS-CoV-2 positivity and, for SARS-CoV-2-positive infants, the presence of normal vs abnormal inflammatory marker (IM) levels.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes were ascertained by medical record review and included the prevalence of UTI, bacteremia without meningitis, and bacterial meningitis. The proportion of infants who were SARS-CoV-2 positive vs negative was calculated for each infection type, and stratified by age group and normal vs abnormal IMs.
RESULTS: Among 14 402 febrile infants with SARS-CoV-2 testing, 8413 (58.4%) were aged 29 to 60 days; 8143 (56.5%) were male; and 3753 (26.1%) tested positive. Compared with infants who tested negative, a lower proportion of infants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had UTI (0.8% [95% CI, 0.5%-1.1%]) vs 7.6% [95% CI, 7.1%-8.1%]), bacteremia without meningitis (0.2% [95% CI, 0.1%-0.3%] vs 2.1% [95% CI, 1.8%-2.4%]), and bacterial meningitis (
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The prevalence of UTI, bacteremia, and bacterial meningitis was lower for febrile infants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, particularly infants aged 29 to 60 days and those with normal IMs. These findings may help inform management of certain febrile infants who test positive for SARS-CoV-2.
Published In/Presented At
Aronson, P. L., Louie, J. P., Kerns, E., Jennings, B., Magee, S., Wang, M. E., Gupta, N., Kovaleski, C., McDaniel, L. M., McDaniel, C. E., & AAP REVISE II QI Collaborative (2023). Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection, Bacteremia, and Meningitis Among Febrile Infants Aged 8 to 60 Days With SARS-CoV-2. JAMA network open, 6(5), e2313354. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.13354
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics