Qualitative Exploration of Geospatially Identified Bright Spots and Priority Areas to Improve Diabetes Management.

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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) results in significant morbidity and mortality and is associated with disparities in prevalence, treatment, and outcomes. GIS can identify geographically based disparities. In the focused Rapid Assessment Process (fRAP)-a novel mixed-method study design-GIS is combined with qualitative inquiry to inform practice interventions and policy changes.

METHODS: Using fRAP, areas with poor T2DM outcomes (priority areas) as well as areas with positive T2DM outcomes (bright spots) were identified, focus groups were conducted, and responses analyzed for intervention opportunities. Focus group participants were English- and Spanish-speaking patients with T2DM living in one of the identified areas. Qualitative analysis consisted of initial coding with a priori themes from the focus group question guide, followed by identification of emergent themes within each defined category.

RESULTS: The a priori categories included Facilitators, Barriers, Strategies, and Impact of Diabetes Diagnosis. Emerging recurrent themes were Interactions with Medical Professionals, Medications, Lifestyle Management, Family Motivators and Support, Self-Efficacy, and Social Needs and Community Resources.

CONCLUSIONS: Thematic results from focus groups can be used by practices to improve T2DM care through educating patients about chronic disease and nutrition, connecting them to diabetes-specific services, learning how diabetes fits in the context of patient lives, and eliciting patient values and motivations to improve diabetes self-management. Findings also may be used by health care professionals to inform community-based advocacy efforts, interventions, and future research.






Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Family Medicine, Network Office of Research and Innovation

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