Evaluation of 19-nor-2alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a therapeutic agent for androgen-dependent prostate cancer.
The high incidence of prostate cancer and lack of an effective, long-term treatment for metastatic disease highlights the need for more potent non-calcemic vitamin D analogs as potential alternative or combinational prostate cancer therapies. Among the analogs, 19-nor-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2) known as paricalcitol or Zempler, has less calcemic effects and an equipotential activity as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3) in several in vivo and in vitro systems. It was recently demonstrated that a modified analog of paricalcitol, 19-nor-2alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (MART-10) compared to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 was more effective in inhibiting proliferation of an immortalized normal prostate cell line (PZ-HPV-7) (1,000-fold) and invasion of PC-3 prostate cancer cells (10-fold). In this study, the effects of MART-10 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 on proliferation, vitamin D receptor transactivation, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) binding, CYP24A1 (24-OHase) substrate hydroxylation kinetics, and induction of CYP24A1 gene expression were compared in an androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell model, LNCaP. The results demonstrated that MART-10 was 1,000-fold more active than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in inhibiting LNCaP cell proliferation. MART-10 was more active than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in up-regulating a vitamin D receptor-responsive Luciferase construct and inducing CYP24A1 gene expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In addition, MART-10 has a lower affinity for DBP and less substrate degradation by CYP24A1 compared to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, indicating that MART-10 has more bioavailability and a longer half-life. Thus, these data suggest that MART-10 may be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent for prostate cancer, especially for patients who fail in conventional therapies.
Published In/Presented At
Flanagan, J. N., Zheng, S., Chiang, K. C., Kittaka, A., Sakaki, T., Nakabayashi, S., Zhao, X., Spanjaard, R. A., Persons, K. S., Mathieu, J. S., Holick, M. F., & Chen, T. C. (2009). Evaluation of 19-nor-2alpha-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a therapeutic agent for androgen-dependent prostate cancer. Anticancer research, 29(9), 3547–3553.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Family Medicine