Etiology of GVHD: alloreactivity or impaired cellular adaptation?
According to the self-nonself model of immunity, allogeneic T cells are considered as major cause of graft versus host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). On the other hand, the danger model of immunity suggests that transplant-associated recipient tissue injury rather than donor-derived alloreactive T cells is the main cause of GVHD. What has been less appreciated are the early, both conditioning-dependent and conditioning-independent, events that impair homeostatic cellular adaptations and host-protective immune responses leading to the development of tissue-specific GVHD. The notion of gut injury precipitating in GVHD has been acknowledged by clinicians, with the shift to reduced intensity-conditioning regimens that prevent acute tissue injury and are less disruptive of tissue adaptation to T cell attack. Also, the role of host-protective immune response against pathogens in preventing GVHD has been shown by the lack of severe GVHD in germ free mice as well as an impaired anti-viral immune response during chronic GVHD. This article provides a brief review of the literature on GVHD and suggests that transplant-induced dysregulation of the protective immune response in the recipient of SCT is more important than allogeneic T cells in causing GVHD.
Published In/Presented At
Manjili, M. H., & Toor, A. A. (2014). Etiology of GVHD: alloreactivity or impaired cellular adaptation?. Immunological investigations, 43(8), 851–857. https://doi.org/10.3109/08820139.2014.953636
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine, Hematology-Medical Oncology Division