OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) adequacy during simulated cardiac arrest of equipped football players and (2) whether protective football equipment impedes CPR performance measures.
DESIGN: Exploratory crossover study performed on Laerdal SimMan 3 G interactive manikin simulator.
SETTING: Temple University/St Luke's University Health Network Regional Medical School Simulation Laboratory.
PARTICIPANTS: Thirty BCLS-certified ATCs and 6 ACLS-certified emergency department technicians.
INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were given standardized rescuer scenarios to perform three 2-minute sequences of compression-only CPR. Baseline CPR sequences were captured on each subject.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Experimental conditions included 2-minute sequences of CPR either over protective football shoulder pads or under unlaced pads. Subjects were instructed to adhere to 2010 American Heart Association guidelines (initiation of compressions alone at 100/min to 51 mm). Dependent variables included average compression depth, average compression rate, percentage of time chest wall recoiled, and percentage of hands-on contact during compressions.
RESULTS: Differences between subject groups were not found to be statistically significant, so groups were combined (n = 36) for analysis of CPR compression adequacy. Compression depth was deeper under shoulder pads than over (P = 0.02), with mean depths of 36.50 and 31.50 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found with compression rate or chest wall recoil.
CONCLUSIONS: Chest compression depth is significantly decreased when performed over shoulder pads, while there is no apparent effect on rate or chest wall recoil. Although the clinical outcomes from our observed 15% difference in compression depth are uncertain, chest compression under the pads significantly increases the depth of compressions and more closely approaches American Heart Association guidelines for chest compression depth in cardiac arrest.
Published In/Presented At
Waninger KN, Goodbred A, Vanic K, Hauth J, Onia J, Stoltzfus J, Melanson S. Adequate performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques during simulated cardiac arrest over and under protective equipment in football. Clin J Sport Med. 2014 Jul;24(4):280-3. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000022.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine