Symptoms of gluten ingestion in patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity: A randomized clinical trial.

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OBJECTIVES: Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is the presence of symptoms induced by gluten and relieved by a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients without celiac disease or wheat allergy. Studies are mixed as to whether gluten is the main symptom trigger in patients with NCGS. Gluten immunogenic peptides (GIPs) in stool and urine are novel methods to monitor GFD compliance. Few studies have investigated their use in patients with NCGS. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with NCGS have increased symptoms with gluten ingestion and to assess compliance with the GFD using stool and urine GIPs.

METHOD: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded crossover trial evaluating symptoms in patients with NCGS. Thirty patients with NCGS and 43 healthy controls were placed on a GFD. Patients received 0.5 or 2 g/d of gluten for 7 d each. The remaining weeks, they received placebo for a total of 4 wk. Symptoms were evaluated weekly using the Celiac Symptom Index (CSI). Urine and stool samples were collected weekly and measured for the detection of GIPs to detect exposure to gluten.

RESULTS: There was no difference in symptom severity within the NCGS group whether receiving placebo or gluten (32.69 versus 31.54, P = 0.64). Patients with NCGS had significantly higher CSI scores at baseline than healthy controls. Patients with NCGS were less likely to have stool and urine GIPs than healthy patients.

CONCLUSION: Patients with NCGS were more adherent to the GFD based on stool and urine GIP results. Patients with NCGS had increased symptom severity at baseline compared with healthy controls. Neither group had significantly increased symptoms after ingestion of gluten.



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Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Medicine

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