Diamond-Forrester classification using echocardiography haemodynamic assessment in cardiac intensive care unit patients.
AIMS: We sought to determine whether the Diamond-Forrester classification using non-invasive haemodynamic measurements by 2-D and Doppler echocardiography would predict hospital mortality in cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed unique patients admitted to the CICU at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2007 to 2018. Doppler-derived cardiac index (CI) and ratio of mitral valve E velocity to medial mitral annulus e' velocity (E/e' ratio) were used to classify patients into four profiles: Profile I (warm/dry), Profile II (warm/wet), Profile III (cold/dry), and Profile IV (cold/wet). Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of hospital mortality, and Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine predictors of mortality during one year of follow-up. We included 4563 patients with a mean age of 68.3 ± 14.3 years, including 36.2% female patients. The distribution of each profile was as follows: I, 47.4%; II, 36.2%; III, 7.9%; IV, 8.5%. A total of 5.8% patients died during hospitalization, and 18.1% died by 1 year. Patients with either low CI or elevated E/e' ratio had higher in-hospital and 1 year mortality. Patients with elevated E/e' ratio (i.e. Profiles II and IV) had an increased risk of death during hospitalization and at 1 year after multivariate adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.72 and 2.17 for 1 year mortality, respectively, compared with Profile I, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Simple Doppler echocardiographic assessment can be used to identify haemodynamic profiles defined by the Diamond-Forester classification in patients admitted in CICU. These profiles predict outcomes and may be used to guide therapy in critically ill patients.
Published In/Presented At
Kim, K. H., Jentzer, J. C., Wiley, B. M., Miranda, W. R., Bennett, C., Barsness, G. W., & Oh, J. K. (2021). Diamond-Forrester classification using echocardiography haemodynamic assessment in cardiac intensive care unit patients. ESC heart failure, 8(6), 4933–4943. https://doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13527
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division