Interaction of calmodulin with histones. Alteration of histone dephosphorylation.
The Ca2+-dependent regulator protein (CDR), also frequently termed "calmodulin" was determined to influence the dephosphorylation of mixed calf thymus histones or purified histones 1, 2A, or 2B by a partially purified bovine brain phosphoprotein phosphatase. CDR increase the rate of dephosphorylation of mixed histones more than 20-fold. With increasing concentrations of mixed histones as substrate, a proportionate increase of CDR concentration was required to maintain maximal expression of histone phosphatase activity. Mixed histones suppressed the activation by CDR of a bovine brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, with activation being restored by increased quantities of CDR. Dephosphorylation of casein and phosphorylase alpha by the phosphatase preparation was not affected by CDR. These observations support the interpretation that the effects of CDR on histone dephosphorylation are substrate-directed. The rates of dephosphorylation of histones 1, 2A, and 2B by the phosphatase were 4- to 12-fold more rapid at low (sub-micromolar) concentrations of free Ca2+ than at high (200 microM) Ca2+ in incubations containing CDR, but they were unaffected by Ca2+ in incubations without CDR. The addition of stoichiometric quantities of calmodulin increased the apparent Km of the phosphatase for the various histones 2- to 6-fold, while maximal velocities were 4- to 12-fold higher at low than at high added Ca2+. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ on histone dephosphorylation was immediately reversible by chelation of Ca2+ with EDTA. Ca2+-dependent inhibition of histone 1 or 2B phosphatase activities was also produced by rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C, but not by rabbit skeletal muscle parvalbumin, by poly(L-aspartate) or poly(L-glutamate). The phosphorylated fragment from the NH2-terminal region of either H2A (generated by treatment with N-bromosuccinimide) or H2B (generated by treatment with cyanogen bromide) was dephosphorylated by the phosphatase, with the rates of dephosphorylation being reduced 3- to 6-fold by Ca2+ in incubations containing CDR.
Published In/Presented At
Wolff, D. J., Ross, J. M., Thompson, P. N., Brostrom, M. A., & Brostrom, C. O. (1981). Interaction of calmodulin with histones. Alteration of histone dephosphorylation. The Journal of biological chemistry, 256(4), 1846–1860.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine