Noninvasive Hemodynamic Characterization of Shock and Preshock Using Echocardiography in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Patients.

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BACKGROUND: Shock and preshock are defined on the basis of the presence of hypotension, hypoperfusion, or both. We sought to determine the hemodynamic underpinnings of shock and preshock noninvasively using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We included Mayo Clinic cardiac intensive care unit patients from 2007 to 2015 with TTE within 1 day of admission. Hypotension and hypoperfusion at the time of cardiac intensive care unit admission were used to define 4 groups. TTE findings were evaluated across these groups, and in-hospital mortality was evaluated according to TTE findings in each group. We included 5375 patients with a median age of 69.2 years (36.8% women). The median left ventricular ejection fraction was 50%. Groups based on hypotension and hypoperfusion were assigned as follows: no hypotension or hypoperfusion, 59.7%; isolated hypotension, 15.3%; isolated hypoperfusion, 16.4%; and both hypotension and hypoperfusion, 8.7%. Most TTE variables of interest varied across these groups, with worse biventricular function, lower forward flow, and higher filling pressures as the degree of hemodynamic compromise increased. In-hospital mortality occurred in 8.2%, and inpatient deaths had more TTE parameter abnormalities. In-hospital mortality increased with the degree of hemodynamic compromise, and a marked gradient in in-hospital mortality was observed when the clinical classification of shock and preshock was combined with TTE findings reflecting worse biventricular function, lower forward flow, or higher filling pressures.

CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in cardiac function are observed between cardiac intensive care unit patients with preshock and shock using TTE, and the combination of the clinical and TTE hemodynamic assessment provides robust mortality risk stratification.

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Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Medicine

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