SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the first year after hematopoietic cell transplant or chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy: A prospective, multicenter, observational study.

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BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines after cellular therapy is incompletely understood. The objectives of this study are to determine whether humoral and cellular responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ if initiatedtherapy.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study at 30 cancer centers in the United States. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was administered as part of routine care. We obtained blood prior to and after vaccinations at up to five time points and tested for SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) IgG in all participants and neutralizing antibodies for Wuhan D614G, Delta B.1.617.2, and Omicron B.1.1.529 strains, as well as SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell receptors (TCRs), in a subgroup.

RESULTS: We enrolled 466 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT; n=231), autologous HCT (n=170), and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy (n=65) recipients between April 2021 and June 2022. Humoral and cellular responses did not significantly differ among participants initiating vaccinations≥2,500 U/mL was correlated with high neutralizing antibody titers and attained by the last time point in 70%, 69%, and 34% of allogeneic HCT, autologous HCT, and CAR-T cell recipients, respectively. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were attained in 57%, 83%, and 58%, respectively. Pre-cellular therapy SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination were key predictors of post-cellular therapy immunity.

CONCLUSIONS: These data support mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination prior to, and reinitiation three to four months after, cellular therapies with allogeneic HCT, autologous HCT, and CAR-T cell therapy.




Medicine and Health Sciences




Hematology-Medical Oncology Division Fellows and Residents, Hematology-Medical Oncology Division

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