Liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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There is a pressing need for new agents to treat hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Doxorubicin has shown modest activity in this setting, but its use is limited by its toxicities. Liposomal encapsulation of doxorubicin appears to promote enhanced tumor accumulation in some tumor types, and toxicity appears to be reduced. A phase II trial of liposomal doxorubicin was therefore conducted in patients with HRPC. Fourteen patients with progressive HRPC were treated. For the first dose only, patients were randomized to receive either doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 or liposomal doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 in order to evaluate exploratory pharmacokinetics. For all subsequent cycles, all patients received liposomal doxorubicin 50 mg/m2. Response to therapy was assessed with serial measurements of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and sequential imaging studies. All 14 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. Two patients (14%) had declines in serum PSA of > or = 50%. The first patient had a baseline PSA of 34.7 ng/mL and a nadir of 17.0 ng/mL. The second patient had a baseline PSA of 5580.0 ng/mL and a nadir of 200.7 ng/mL. The latter of these 2 patients had an unambiguous improvement in bone scan and a reduction in pain. Treatment was well tolerated overall. One patient was removed from treatment after the development of a grade 3 infusion reaction with the first cycle of liposomal doxorubicin. Neutropenia was the most common toxicity; in only 1 case was it grade 3, and no cases of grade 4 were seen. Doxorubicin plasma concentrations were best fit by a linear, two-compartment model. Liposomal doxorubicin plasma concentrations were best fit by a linear, one-compartment model. Treatment with liposomal doxorubicin was well tolerated overall. While monotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin has only modest activity in the treatment of HRPC, it may be of interest to study this agent as part of combination chemotherapy.





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Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Medicine, Hematology-Medical Oncology Division

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