Microsatellite Instability, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

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PURPOSE: Patients with microsatellite instability high/mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) and high tumor mutational burden (TMB-H) prostate cancers are candidates for pembrolizumab. We define the genomic features, clinical course, and response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) in patients with MSI-H/dMMR and TMB-H prostate cancers without MSI (TMB-H/MSS).

METHODS: We sequenced 3,244 tumors from 2,257 prostate cancer patients. MSI-H/dMMR prostate cancer was defined as MSIsensor score ≥10 or MSIsensor score ≥3 and≥10 mutations/megabase. PSA50 and RECIST responses were assigned. Overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) were compared using log rank test.

RESULTS: 63 (2.8%) men had MSI-H/dMMR and 33 (1.5%) had TMB-H/MSS prostate cancers. Patients with MSI-H/dMMR and TMB-H/MSS tumors more commonly presented with grade group 5 and metastatic disease at diagnosis. MSI-H/dMMR tumors had higher TMB, indel and neoantigen burden compared with TMB-H/MSS. 27 patients with MSI-H/dMMR and 8 patients with TMB-H/MSS tumors received ICB, none of whom harbored POLE mutations. 45% of MSI-H/dMMR patients had a RECIST response and 65% had a PSA50 response. No TMB-H/MSS patient had a RECIST response and 50% had a PSA50 response. rPFS tended to be longer in MSI-H/dMMR patients than in TMB-H/MSS patients who received immunotherapy. Pronounced differences in genomics, TMB or MSIsensor score were not detected between MSI-H/dMMR responders and non-responders.

CONCLUSIONS: MSI-H/dMMR prostate cancers have greater TMB, indel and neoantigen burden compared with TMB-H/MSS prostate cancers, and these differences may contribute to more profound and durable responses to ICB.




Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Medicine

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