Iron Overload in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.
CONTEXT: Patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant are at an increased risk of developing iron overload.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of hepatic iron overload on hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and to validate the utility of histologic scoring system of iron granules in the liver.
DESIGN: Records of 154 post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients were reviewed. Forty-nine patients underwent liver biopsy. Histologic hepatic iron overload was defined as a score of 2 or greater (scale, 0-4).
RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 49 patients (57%) evaluated by liver biopsy had hepatic iron overload; 17 had moderate to severe hepatic iron overload (score, 3 or 4). In multivariate analysis, a significant correlation was discovered between hepatic iron overload and the number of transfusions (P < .001), posttransplant serum ferritin levels (P=.004), lactate dehydrogenase levels (P=.03), and the development of blood stream infections (P= .02). There was no correlation between hepatic iron overload and abnormal liver function test results. While 37 patients (76%) died after receiving a transplant, mortality was not influenced by hepatic iron overload but was significantly higher in older patients, in patients with lower serum albumin levels, higher serum bilirubin levels, and higher clinical grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (P=.04, P=.001, P=
CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic iron overload is commonly identified in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and can be accurately diagnosed by liver biopsy. In addition, hepatic iron overload has been identified in patients receiving as few as 25 units of packed red blood cells, with elevated posttransplant serum ferritin levels, and with blood stream infections.
Published In/Presented At
Ali, S., Pimentel, J. D., Munoz, J., Shah, V., McKinnon, R., Divine, G., & Janakiraman, N. (2012). Iron overload in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Archives Of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 136(5), 532-538. doi:10.5858/arpa.2011-0190-OA
Medical Pathology | Pathology
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine