Two-color immunostaining of liver fine needle aspiration biopsies with CD34 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Potential utilization in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic tumor.
OBJECTIVE: To examine immunohistochemical staining of cell block material with antibodies against vascular marker CD34 and polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (pCEA) for their clinical utility as part of a 2-color staining protocol in fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of liver masses to distinguish metastases from primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
STUDY DESIGN: The authors obtained cell block material from 96 liver FNAs and performed simultaneous (i.e., "dual-color") immunohistochemical staining utilizing antibodies against vascular marker CD34 and pCEA. Cases were blinded and evaluated by the authors for staining pattern and intensity. A consensus was obtained, the results were unblinded, and the diagnoses were correlated.
RESULTS: After staining, 89 cases had sufficient tissue for evaluation. Of the 19 HCC cases, 16 (84%) showed peripheral staining with CD34, and 13 (68%) showed a canalicular or mixed canalicular-cytoplasmic staining pattern for pCEA. Thirteen cases (68%) showed staining for both antigens. All HCC exhibited immunostaining for at least 1 antibody in an appropriate staining pattern. Of the 67 cases of metastatic malignancy, 5 (7%) showed a predominantly transgressing pattern of CD34 staining, 43 (64%) showed a predominantly cytoplasmic or mixed cytoplasmic-canalicular pattern of pCEA staining, and 2 cases (3%) showed staining for both antigens in a transgressing CD34 pattern and cytoplasmic pCEA pattern. None of the 3 normal liver tissue blocks showed staining with either antigen.
CONCLUSION: Two-color immunohistochemical staining of liver cell block material obtained by FNA with antibodies to CD34 and pCEA can be helpful in differentiating metastatic tumors vs. primary HCC.
Published In/Presented At
Yoder, M., Zimmerman, R. L., & Bibbo, M. (2004). Two-color immunostaining of liver fine needle aspiration biopsies with CD34 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Potential utilization in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic tumor. Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology, 26(2), 61–64.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine