OBJECTIVE: The administration of hyperosmolar oral products in neonates has been associated with gastrointestinal complications. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum osmolality of 450 mOsm/kg for formulas and enteral nutrition for term infants, and recent studies reported intolerance to enteral nutrition with osmolality above 500 mOsm/kg in low birthweight infants. The osmolality of medications administered to neonates is often not available in the literature or from manufacturers. The purpose of this study was to determine the osmolality of oral medications commonly administered to neonates in the NICU.
METHODS: Fifty-two oral medications were chosen for this study, including solutions, suspensions, syrups, elixirs, and intravenous solutions administered orally. The osmolality of each medication was measured in triplicate by using freezing point depression.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven of the 43 medications with measurable values (86.1%) had an osmolality greater than 500 mOsm/kg, and 6 medications (14%) had an osmolality less than 500 mOsm/kg. Nine medications did not result in a value.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides osmolality data on oral medications commonly used in neonates with most oral medications having an osmolality greater than 500 mOsm/kg.
Published In/Presented At
Shah, D. D., Kuzmov, A., Clausen, D., Siu, A., Robinson, C. A., Kimler, K., Meyers, R., & Shah, P. (2021). Osmolality of Commonly Used Oral Medications in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics : JPPT : the official journal of PPAG, 26(2), 172–178. https://doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-26.2.172
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Peer Reviewed for front end display
Department of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Faculty