Restenosis after carotid endarterectomy: incidence and endovascular management.

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Surgical procedures designed to restore vascular patency for a recurrent stenosis following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are burdened with technical difficulties as well as with the possibility of serious neurological complications. An endovascular approach employing transluminal percutaneous angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) is a promising solution to these problems. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of carotid artery restenosis following CEA, and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of treating post-CEA restenosis with an endovascular technique (PTAS). One hundred and two patients who underwent CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic stenosis were included in the analysis. Clinical and sonographic follow-up examinations identified carotid artery restenosis in 16 patients, who fulfilled our criteria for endovascular treatment. Carotid PTAS was performed on symptomatic patients with a stenosis over 60% of the artery lumen (n=7) and in asymptomatic patients with a stenosis over 80% (n=9). The post-PTAS patients were evaluated by duplex sonography every three months over a 24 month follow-up period for evidence of restenosis. The cumulative incidence of post-CEA carotid restenosis qualifying for PTAS was 9.3% during an average 12-month follow-up interval. The average time from CEA to carotid PTAS was 11 months. All 16 endovascular procedures were technically successful. All of the carotid arteries were widely patent following PTAS. There were no immediate perioperative complications. One patient died two days after carotid PTAS from a cerebral hemorrhage. Thirteen of the 16 patients remained asymptomatic and had no sonographic evidence of significant restenosis during the 24- month post-PTAS follow-up period. One patient developed a symptomatic 80% restenosis proximal to the stent six months after carotid PTAS. Another patient developed an asymptomatic 60% restenosis proximal to the stent at 24 months. One patient was lost to follow-up. Following CEA, there is a significant risk of developing a symptomatic or high-grade carotid artery restenosis requiring correction. Endovascular treatment (PTAS) of a recurrent stenosis after CEA is a safe and effective alternative to repeat carotid surgery.





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Diagnosis | Medicine and Health Sciences | Other Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Radiology




Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Medical Imaging

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