Performance of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Automated Segmentation and Quantification of Traumatic Pelvic Hematomas on CT.
The volume of pelvic hematoma at CT has been shown to be the strongest independent predictor of major arterial injury requiring angioembolization in trauma victims with pelvic fractures, and also correlates with transfusion requirement and mortality. Measurement of pelvic hematomas (unopacified extraperitoneal blood accumulated from time of injury) using semi-automated seeded region growing is time-consuming and requires trained experts, precluding routine measurement at the point of care. Pelvic hematomas are markedly variable in shape and location, have irregular ill-defined margins, have low contrast with respect to viscera and muscle, and reside within anatomically distorted pelvises. Furthermore, pelvic hematomas occupy a small proportion of the entire volume of a chest, abdomen, and pelvis (C/A/P) trauma CT. The challenges are many, and no automated methods for segmentation and volumetric analysis have been described to date. Traditional approaches using fully convolutional networks result in coarse segmentations and class imbalance with suboptimal convergence. In this study, we implement a modified coarse-to-fine deep learning approach-the Recurrent Saliency Transformation Network (RSTN) for pelvic hematoma volume segmentation. RSTN previously yielded excellent results in pancreas segmentation, where low contrast with adjacent structures, small target volume, variable location, and fine contours are also problematic. We have curated a unique single-institution corpus of 253 C/A/P admission trauma CT studies in patients with bleeding pelvic fractures with manually labeled pelvic hematomas. We hypothesized that RSTN would result in sufficiently high Dice similarity coefficients to facilitate accurate and objective volumetric measurements for outcome prediction (arterial injury requiring angioembolization). Cases were separated into five combinations of training and test sets in an 80/20 split and fivefold cross-validation was performed. Dice scores in the test set were 0.71 (SD ± 0.10) using RSTN, compared to 0.49 (SD ± 0.16) using a baseline Deep Learning Tool Kit (DLTK) reference 3D U-Net architecture. Mean inference segmentation time for RSTN was 0.90 min (± 0.26). Pearson correlation between predicted and manual labels was 0.95 with p < 0.0001. Measurement bias was within 10 mL. AUC of hematoma volumes for predicting need for angioembolization was 0.81 (predicted) versus 0.80 (manual). Qualitatively, predicted labels closely followed hematoma contours and avoided muscle and displaced viscera. Further work will involve validation using a federated dataset and incorporation into a predictive model using multiple segmented features.
Published In/Presented At
Dreizin, D., Zhou, Y., Zhang, Y., Tirada, N., & Yuille, A. L. (2020). Performance of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Automated Segmentation and Quantification of Traumatic Pelvic Hematomas on CT. Journal of digital imaging, 33(1), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10278-019-00207-1
Diagnosis | Medicine and Health Sciences | Other Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Radiology
Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Medical Imaging