Accuracy of subjective vesicoureteral reflux timing assessment: supporting new voiding cystourethrogram guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Bladder volume at the onset of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an important prognostic indicator of spontaneous resolution and the risk of pyelonephritis.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine whether pediatric urologists and pediatric radiologists can accurately estimate the timing of reflux by examining voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) images without prior knowledge of the instilled contrast volume.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total bladder volume and the volume at the time of reflux were collected from VCUG reports to determine the volume at the onset of VUR. Thirty-nine patients were sorted into three groups: early-/mid-filling reflux, late-filling and voiding only. Thirty-nine images were shown to three pediatric urologists and two pediatric radiologists in a blinded fashion and they were then asked to estimate VUR timing based on the above categories. A weighted kappa statistic was calculated to assess rater agreement with the gold standard volume-based report of VUR timing.
RESULTS: The mean patient age at VCUG was 3.1±2.9 months, the median VUR was grade 3, and 20 patients were female. Overall agreement among all five raters was moderate (k=0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.50). Individual agreement between rater and gold standard was slight to moderate with kappa values ranging from 0.13 to 0.43.
CONCLUSION: Pediatric radiologists and urologists are unable to accurately and reliably characterize VUR timing on fluoroscopic VCUG. These findings support the recently published American Academy of Pediatrics protocol recommending the routine recording of bladder volume at the onset of VUR as a standard component of all VCUGs to assist in a more accurate assessment of the likelihood of resolution and risk of recurrent urinary tract infections.
Published In/Presented At
Ji, D., Ridley, D. E., Grattan-Smith, J. D., Williams, J. P., Arlen, A. M., Kirsch, A. J., McCracken, C. M., Cooper, C. S., Durrence, W. W., Lightfoot, M. A., & Garcia-Roig, M. L. (2020). Accuracy of subjective vesicoureteral reflux timing assessment: supporting new voiding cystourethrogram guidelines. Pediatric radiology, 50(7), 953–957. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04637-w
Diagnosis | Medicine and Health Sciences | Other Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Radiology
Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Medical Imaging