Immunomodulatory activity seen as a result of photobiomodulation therapy in stimulated primary human fibroblasts

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Archives of oral biology




Department of Medicine; Fellows and Residents


Chemokine, Cytokine, Low level laser therapy, Periodontal inflammation, Photobiomodulation


OBJECTIVE: Oral biofilms burden host responses by induction of inflammatory mediators, exacerbating periodontal inflammation. Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) has been shown to decrease levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, optimal wavelengths and exposure doses have not been established. This study investigated the effects of PBMT on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) stimulated with inflammatory mediators (LPS, TNF-α, and IL-1β). METHODS: Cytotoxic effects of laser wavelengths 660 nm and 810 nm were assessed by measuring their effects on cellular dehydrogenase activity. The study was expanded to include 980 nm, 660 nm + 810 nm, and 810 nm + 980 nm. P.g. LPS, TNF-α, and/or IL-1β were added one hour before irradiation, then exposed to laser irradiation to determine the most appropriate stimulus. The levels of INF-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A/F, and MCP-1 production in stimulated hPDLFs were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: P.g. LPS was a poor stimulus for hPDLFs, while TNF-α and IL-1β significantly elevated the analytes. The 660 nm laser treatment induced pro-inflammatory cytokines when stimulated, while 810 nm exhibited significant suppression. IL-1β was the stimulus of choice and the 810 nm wavelength alone exhibited anti-inflammatory effects for all analytes except IL-8, while the 810 nm in combination with 660 nm and/or 980 nm exhibited effects similar to 810 nm alone. CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of inflammatory mediators by the combination or individual treatment with 810 nm wavelength shows promise for the management of periodontal inflammation. PBMT may lead to the development of a novel approach in the management of periodontal disease.



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