Treatment of Central Nervous System Tumors on Combination MR-Linear Accelerators: Review of Current Practice and Future Directions.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent visualization of central nervous system (CNS) tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast. Magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) has historically been limited to use in the initial treatment planning stage due to cost and feasibility. MRI-guided linear accelerators (MRLs) allow clinicians to visualize tumors and organs at risk (OARs) directly before and during treatment, a process known as online MRgRT. This novel system permits adaptive treatment planning based on anatomical changes to ensure accurate dose delivery to the tumor while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to healthy tissue. These advancements are critical to treatment adaptation in the brain and spinal cord, where both preliminary MRI and daily CT guidance have typically had limited benefit. In this narrative review, we investigate the application of online MRgRT in the treatment of various CNS malignancies and any relevant ongoing clinical trials. Imaging of glioblastoma patients has shown significant changes in the gross tumor volume over a standard course of chemoradiotherapy. The use of adaptive online MRgRT in these patients demonstrated reduced target volumes with cavity shrinkage and a resulting reduction in radiation dose to uninvolved tissue. Dosimetric feasibility studies have shown MRL-guided stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for intracranial and spine tumors to have potential dosimetric advantages and reduced morbidity compared with conventional linear accelerators. Similarly, dosimetric feasibility studies have shown promise in hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT). Next, we explore the potential of MRL-based multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and genomically informed radiotherapy to treat CNS disease with cutting-edge precision. Lastly, we explore the challenges of treating CNS malignancies and special limitations MRL systems face.
Published In/Presented At
Bryant, J. M., Doniparthi, A., Weygand, J., Cruz-Chamorro, R., Oraiqat, I. M., Andreozzi, J., Graham, J., Redler, G., Latifi, K., Feygelman, V., Rosenberg, S. A., Yu, H. M., & Oliver, D. E. (2023). Treatment of Central Nervous System Tumors on Combination MR-Linear Accelerators: Review of Current Practice and Future Directions. Cancers, 15(21), 5200. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15215200
Medical Education | Medicine and Health Sciences
USF-LVHN SELECT Program, USF-LVHN SELECT Program Students