Title

Virtual and Augmented Reality in Neurosurgery: The Evolution of its Application and Study Designs.

Publication/Presentation Date

5-1-2022

Abstract

BACKGROUND: As the art of neurosurgery evolves in the 21st century, more emphasis is placed on minimally invasive techniques, which require technical precision. Simultaneously, the reduction on training hours continues, and teachers of neurosurgery faces "double jeopardy"-with harder skills to teach and less time to teach them. Mixed reality appears as the neurosurgical educators' natural ally: Virtual reality facilitates the learning of spatial relationships and permits rehearsal of skills, while augmented reality can make procedures safer and more efficient. Little wonder then, that the body of literature on mixed reality in neurosurgery has grown exponentially.

METHODS: Publications involving virtual and augmented reality in neurosurgery were examined. A total of 414 papers were included, and they were categorized according to study design and analyzed.

RESULTS: Half of the papers were published within the last 3 years alone. Whereas in the earlier half, most of the publications involved experiments in virtual reality simulation and the efficacy of skills acquisition, many of the more recent publication are proof-of-concept studies. This attests to the evolution of mixed reality in neurosurgery. As the technology advances, neurosurgeons are finding more applications, both in training and clinical practice.

CONCLUSIONS: With parallel advancement in Internet speed and artificial intelligence, the utilization of mixed reality will permeate neurosurgery. From solving staff problems in global neurosurgery, to mitigating the deleterious effect of duty-hour reductions, to improving individual operations, mixed reality will have a positive effect in many aspects of neurosurgery.

Volume

161

First Page

459

Last Page

464

ISSN

1878-8769

Disciplines

Medicine and Health Sciences

PubMedID

35505566

Department(s)

Department of Surgery

Document Type

Article

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