Metabolic Surgery for Adult Obesity: Common Questions and Answers.
In 2019, approximately 256,000 metabolic surgery procedures were performed in the United States, a 32% increase since 2014. The most common procedures are the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Choice of procedure depends on concurrent medical conditions, patient preference, and expertise of the surgeon. These procedures have a mortality risk of 0.2% to 0.3%. On average, weight loss of 30 to 50 kg (66 to 110 lb), or a 20% to 30% reduction in total body weight, is achieved, although most patients will experience some weight regain three to 10 years after surgery. In patients who have had metabolic surgery, all-cause mortality is reduced by 30% to 45% at two to 15 years postsurgery compared with patients with obesity who did not have surgery. Remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs in as many as 70% to 80% of patients within one to two years after surgery and is maintained at 10 years in about 30% of patients. Other obesity-related conditions are also greatly reduced, and quality of life improves. Postoperatively, patients require standardized nutritional supplementation and surveillance. Persistent changes in diet, such as consuming protein first at every meal, regular physical activity, and ongoing attention to behavior change are critical for the success of the patient after metabolic surgery. Common adverse outcomes include surgical complications, nutritional deficiencies, bone density loss, dumping syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and loose skin. The family physician is well positioned to counsel patients about metabolic surgical options and the risks and benefits of surgery and to provide long-term support and medical management for postsurgery patients.
Published In/Presented At
Banerjee ES, Schroeder R, Harrison TD. Metabolic Surgery for Adult Obesity: Common Questions and Answers. Am Fam Physician. 2022 Jun 1;105(6):593-601. PMID: 35704821.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Family Medicine, Department of Surgery