Relationship Between Gender, Training Level and Goal Orientation Achievement Motivation: Implications for Learners and Faculty.
PURPOSE: Achievement goal orientation (GO) theory describes Mastery (M), one's intrinsic drive for competency for the sake of competency, and performance approach (PAP), a drive for competency by displaying competency, which are both adaptive. In learners motivated by performance avoid (PAV), showing competency by avoiding appearing incompetent dominates (maladaptive). The aim of this study was to determine differences in GO by gender and training (PGY) level.
METHODS: A prospective, multi-institutional cohort of general surgery trainees participated in a cross-sectional study (2020-2021). Participants completed a 10-item instrument (the Goal Orientation in Surgical Trainees, GO-ST) measured on a 5-pointLikert scale (1 = never,3 = weekly,5 = daily). Student's t-tests and ANOVA F-test were used as appropriate.
RESULTS: A total of 144/164 trainees participated (87.8%). The sample was 40.0%(n = 56) female and 57.9%(n = 81) male; 21.3%(n = 30) were PGY1, 22.0%(n = 31) PGY2, 24.8%(n = 35) PGY3, 18.4%(n = 26) PGY4, 13.5%(n = 19) PGY5. There were no significant differences in mean scale scores by gender for Mastery (3.3 vs 3.5; p = 0.17), or PAP (3.7 vs 3.5; p = 0.10), but mean PAV scores were significantly higher for females (3.6 vs 3.3; p = 0.04). While there were no significant differences in mean Mastery and PAP scale scores by training level (p = 0.44; p = 0.31), there was a significant difference in PAV scores (p < 0.01). The frequency of PAV feelings decreased over 5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Only PAV motivation differed by gender and training level. Understanding the psychology of motivation with this framework can aid both residents and programs in re-focusing on more adaptive learning strategies and supporting trainees in their transition to master surgeons.
Published In/Presented At
Balanoff, C., Fatunmbi, A., Aarons, C., Protyniak, B., Joshi, A., Woelfel, I., & Hoffman, R. (2022). Relationship Between Gender, Training Level and Goal Orientation Achievement Motivation: Implications for Learners and Faculty. Journal of surgical education, 79(6), e38–e47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2022.07.015
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery