Biological and clinical correlates of the patient health questionnaire-9: exploratory cross-sectional analyses of the baseline health study.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the relationship between the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at intake and other measurements intended to assess biological factors, markers of disease and health status.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2365 participants from the Baseline Health Study, a prospective cohort of adults selected to represent major demographic groups in the USA. Participants underwent deep phenotyping on demographic, clinical, laboratory, functional and imaging findings.
IMPORTANCE: Despite extensive research on the clinical implications of the PHQ-9, data are limited on the relationship between PHQ-9 scores and other measures of health and disease; we sought to better understand this relationship.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cross-sectional measures of medical illnesses, gait, balance strength, activities of daily living, imaging and laboratory tests.
RESULTS: Compared with lower PHQ-9 scores, higher scores were associated with female sex (46.9%-66.7%), younger participants (53.6-42.4 years) and compromised physical status (higher resting heart rates (65 vs 75 bpm), larger body mass index (26.5-30 kg/m
CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights how: (1) even subthreshold depressive symptoms (measured by PHQ-9) may be indicative of several individual- and population-level concerns that demand more attention; and (2) depression should be considered a comorbidity in common disease.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03154346.
Published In/Presented At
Califf, R. M., Wong, C., Doraiswamy, P. M., Hong, D. S., Miller, D. P., Mega, J. L., & Baseline Study Group (2022). Biological and clinical correlates of the patient health questionnaire-9: exploratory cross-sectional analyses of the baseline health study. BMJ open, 12(1), e054741. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054741
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Pediatrics, Department of Surgery