Inflammatory gut as a pathologic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a significant unmet clinical need. Gut dysbiosis stands as a PD pathologic source and therapeutic target. Here, we assessed the role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathology and treatment. Adult transgenic (Tg) α-synuclein-overexpressing mice served as subjects and were randomly assigned to either transplantation of vehicle or human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and plasma. Behavioral and immunohistochemical assays evaluated the functional outcomes following transplantation. Tg mice displayed typical motor and gut motility deficits, elevated α-synuclein levels, and dopaminergic depletion, accompanied by gut dysbiosis characterized by upregulation of microbiota and cytokines associated with inflammation in the gut and the brain. In contrast, transplanted Tg mice displayed amelioration of motor deficits, improved sparing of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and downregulation of α-synuclein and inflammatory-relevant microbiota and cytokines in both gut and brain. Parallel in vitro studies revealed that cultured dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells exposed to homogenates of Tg mouse-derived dysbiotic gut exhibited significantly reduced cell viability and elevated inflammatory signals compared to wild-type mouse-derived gut homogenates. Moreover, treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and plasma improved cell viability and decreased inflammation in dysbiotic gut-exposed SH-SY5Y cells. Intravenous transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived stem/progenitor cells and plasma reduced inflammatory microbiota and cytokine, and dampened α-synuclein overload in the gut and the brain of adult α-synuclein-overexpressing Tg mice. Our findings advance the gut-brain axis as a key pathological origin, as well as a robust therapeutic target for PD.
Published In/Presented At
Lee, J. Y., Wang, Z. J., Moscatello, A., Kingsbury, C., Cozene, B., Farooq, J., Saft, M., Sadanandan, N., Gonzales-Portillo, B., Zhang, H., Salazar, F. E., Toledo, A. R. L., Monroy, G. R., Berlet, R., Sanberg, C. D., Sanberg, P. R., & Borlongan, C. V. (2022). Inflammatory gut as a pathologic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Cell death discovery, 8(1), 396. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-022-01175-2
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery, USF-LVHN SELECT Program, USF-LVHN SELECT Program Students