Effect of cannula length on aortic arch flow: protection of the atheromatous aortic arch.
Atheromatous disease in the transverse aortic arch is associated with an increased incidence of perioperative stroke. In addition, tissue erosion in the aortic arch is caused by the high-velocity jet emerging from an aortic cannula during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), termed the "sandblast effect". To quantify this phenomenon, flow in the aortic arch was measured intraoperatively by epiaortic ultrasonography in 18 patients undergoing CPB. All were cannulated in the ascending aorta, 10 with a short (1.5 cm) cannula and 8 with a long (7.0 cm) cannula. The peak forward aortic flow velocities (mean +/- standard deviation) measured on the caudal luminal surface of the aortic arch were 0.80 +/- 0.23 m/s off CPB and 2.42 +/- 0.69 m/s on CPB (p < 0.001) for the short cannula and 0.53 +/- 0.20 m/s off CPB and 0.18 m/s on CPB for the long cannula. Thus, during CPB the peak forward aortic flow velocity with the short cannula was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than before CPB, whereas the long cannula produced a lower peak forward aortic flow velocity during CPB. Furthermore, Doppler examination revealed severe turbulence in the aortic arch in all patients with a short cannula. No arch turbulence, however, was seen in 7 patients with a long cannula, and only mild turbulence appeared in the remaining patient with a long cannula. These results show that use of a long aortic cannula results in a significant decrease in peak forward aortic flow velocity and turbulence in the aortic arch during CPB, which may reduce the risk of erosion or disruption of existing atheroma and ensuing embolic complications.
Published In/Presented At
Grossi, E. A., Kanchuger, M. S., Schwartz, D. S., McLoughlin, D. E., LeBoutillier, M., 3rd, Ribakove, G. H., Marschall, K. E., Galloway, A. C., & Colvin, S. B. (1995). Effect of cannula length on aortic arch flow: protection of the atheromatous aortic arch. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 59(3), 710–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4975(94)01051-X
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery