Report from the national transplantation pregnancy registry (NTPR): outcomes of pregnancy after transplantation.
The NTPR continues to analyze the safety of pregnancy in female transplant recipients as well as outcomes of pregnancies fathered by male transplant recipients. With regard to female recipients, pregnancy does not appear to adversely affect graft function, when the function of the transplanted graft is stable prior to pregnancy. A small percentage of recipients with each transplanted organ develops rejection, graft dysfunction or graft loss. These events may occur in recipients with pre-pregnancy graft dysfunction or on occasion, occur unpredictably. Female cyclosporine-treated kidney recipients with both shorter and longer intervals from transplant to conception have been analyzed, with favorable outcomes noted. It appears sensible to continue to advise recipients to wait one to 2 years after transplant to allow for stable graft function as well as stabilization of immunosuppressive medications. However, given that favorable outcomes can occur with either shorter or longer intervals, these recipients need to be counseled and followed on a case-by-case basis. Newer agents and more potent regimens are under continued surveillance. Two cases with structural malformations have been noted in female recipient offspring with exposure to MMF during pregnancy. Data remain limited and are insufficient to determine a specific malformation incidence. The risk of graft rejection as well as graft dysfunction must be weighed against the risk of potential teratogenicity when maintaining female recipients on MMF during pregnancy. For male recipients maintained on MMF, there have been no patterns of problems noted in their offspring. The structural malformation incidence in newborn of cyclosporine-treated recipients is in the range expected for the general population without any specific predominance of malformations. It remains to be seen whether or not any specific pattern of problems will become apparent in the newborn with newer regimens. Controversy surrounding breastfeeding continues, although it has become an option that some recipients choose to consider. Data have accrued in liver, heart, pancreas-kidney and lung recipients. Among lung recipients, there appears to be poorer maternal survival postpartum, which may be related to pregnancy or may be inherent in this population. Continued entries to the registry, especially in light of newer combinations of immunosuppressive agents, should help to provide the guidelines for management. All centers are encouraged to participate.
Published In/Presented At
Armenti, V. T., Radomski, J. S., Moritz, M. J., Gaughan, W. J., Philips, L. Z., McGrory, C. H., & Coscia, L. A. (2001). Report from the national transplantation pregnancy registry (NTPR): outcomes of pregnancy after transplantation. Clinical transplants, 97–105.
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery