β-blockade protection of bone marrow following trauma: the role of G-CSF.
BACKGROUND: Following severe trauma, there is a profound elevation of catecholamine that is associated with a persistent anemic state. We have previously shown that β-blockade (βB) prevents erythroid growth suppression and decreases hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization following injury. Under normal conditions, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) triggers the activation of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), leading to the egress of progenitor cells from the bone marrow (BM). When sustained, this depletion of BM cellularity may contribute to BM failure. This study seeks to determine if G-CSF plays a role in the βB protection of BM following trauma.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either unilateral lung contusion (LC) ± βB, hemorrhagic shock (HS) ± βB, or both LC/HS ± βB. Propranolol (βB) was given immediately following resuscitation. Animals were sacrificed at 3 and 24 h and HPC mobilization was assessed by evaluating BM cellularity and flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood for HPCs. The concentration of G-CSF and MMP-9 was measured in plasma by ELISA.
RESULTS: BM cellularity is decreased at 3 h following LC, HS, and LC/HS. HS and LC/HS resulted in significant HPC mobilization in the peripheral blood. The addition of βB restored BM cellularity and reduced HPC mobilization. Three h following HS and LC/HS, plasma G-CSF levels more than double, however LC alone showed no change in G-CSF. βB significantly decreased G-CSF in both HS and LC/HS. Similarly, MMP-9 is elevated following LC/HS, and βB prevents this elevation (390 ± 100 pg/mL versus 275 ± 80 pg/mL).
CONCLUSION: βB protection of the BM following shock and injury may be due to reduced HPC mobilization and maintenance of BM cellularity. Following shock, there is an increase in plasma G-CSF and MMP-9, which is abrogated by βB and suggests a possible mechanism how βB decreases HPC mobilization thus preserving BM cellularity. In contrast, βB protection of BM following LC is not mediated by G-CSF. Therefore, the mechanism of progenitor cell mobilization from the BM is dependent on the type of injury.
Published In/Presented At
Baranski, G. M., Offin, M. D., Sifri, Z. C., Elhassan, I. O., Hannoush, E. J., Alzate, W. D., Rameshwar, P., Livingston, D. H., & Mohr, A. M. (2011). β-blockade protection of bone marrow following trauma: the role of G-CSF. The Journal of surgical research, 170(2), 325–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.03.059
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery