The TIGR triangle of the pineal region: a virtual reality anatomic study.
BACKGROUND: In this morphometric study, we describe the anatomy of the TIGR triangle, which is bordered by the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, the internal cerebral vein and vein of Galen complex, and the vein of Rosenthal. These structures define the window, or deep keyhole, to access the pineal region in non-midline supracerebellar infratentorial approaches.
METHODS: The posterior fossa anatomy of 16 patients was studied in virtual reality (VR), and the TIGR triangles were defined and measured with special attention on its angular orientation in the posterior fossa. The angular expanse of the posterior fossa was measured and recorded as the transverse-sigmoid junction (TSJ) angle. Because a perpendicular corridor through an anatomic aperture provides the best exposure, we studied the starting point along the TSJ angle that offers the best exposure of TIGR.
RESULTS: In the 31 posterior fossa sides included in the study, the perpendicular trajectory through the TIGR triangle was on average 27.13° CI 95% (range: 5.97°-48.53°) from the midline. When comparing the SCIT variants, both the paramedian and lateral approaches provided near-perpendicular trajectory through the TIGR triangle in a majority of specimens. However, the modified paramedian approach, with starting point defined as TSJ angle/3, provided the most perpendicular path through the TIGR triangle.
CONCLUSION: We studied the size, spatial orientation, and morphology of the TIGR triangle. Our data indicated that the best exposure of TIGR is through a modified paramedian SCIT approach, in which the starting point one third of the way from midline to the TSJ.
Published In/Presented At
Saez-Alegre, M., Rios-Vicil, C. I., Alvarez, A. S., Sagrati, J., Piper, K., & Jean, W. C. (2023). The TIGR triangle of the pineal region: a virtual reality anatomic study. Acta neurochirurgica, 10.1007/s00701-023-05880-4. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-023-05880-4
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Surgery, Fellows and Residents, Department of Surgery Residents, Department of Surgery Faculty