Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin modulates myocardial metabolism and inflammation in a swine model for chronic myocardial ischemia.

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BACKGROUND: Inflammation and disruption of cardiac metabolism are prevalent in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose costransporter-2 inhibitor, has beneficial effects on the heart, though the precise mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated the effects of canagliflozin therapy on metabolic pathways and inflammation in ischemic myocardial tissue using a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

METHODS: Sixteen Yorkshire swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor to the left circumflex artery to induce chronic ischemia. Two weeks later, pigs received either no drug (n = 8) or 300 mg canagliflozin (n = 8) daily. Five weeks later, pigs underwent terminal harvest and tissue collection.

RESULTS: Canagliflozin treatment was associated with a trend toward decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation inhibitor acetyl-CoA carboxylase and decreased phosphorylated/inactivated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a promotor of fatty acid oxidation, compared with control ischemic myocardium (P = .08, P = .03). There was also a significant modulation in insulin resistance markers p-IRS1, p-PKCα, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic myocardium of the canagliflozin group compared with the control group (all P < .05). Canagliflozin treatment was associated with a significant increase in inflammatory markers interleukin 6, interleukin 17, interferon-gamma, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (all P < .05). There was a trend toward decreased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 10 (P = .16) and interleukin 4 (P = .31) with canagliflozin treatment.

CONCLUSION: The beneficial effects of canagliflozin therapy appear to be associated with inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and enhancement of insulin signaling in ischemic myocardium. Interestingly, canagliflozin appears to increase the levels of several inflammatory markers, but further studies are required to better understand how canagliflozin modulates inflammatory signaling pathways.






Department of Surgery, Fellows and Residents, Department of Surgery Residents

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