Ischemic myocardial inflammatory signaling in starvation versus hypoxia-derived extracellular vesicles: A comparative analysis.

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BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Bone mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown promise in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, the properties of the EVs can be modified via preconditioning of progenitor cells. Previous research from our lab demonstrated a significant decrease in proinflammatory signaling following treatment with EVs derived from starvation preconditioning of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (MVM EVs) in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. However, rodent models have demonstrated that the use of EVs derived from hypoxia preconditioning of bone mesenchymal stem cells (HYP EVs) may have extended benefits compared to MVM EVs. This study evaluated the effect of HYP EVs on inflammation in a swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. We hypothesized that HYP EVs would have a greater anti-inflammatory effect than MVM EVs or saline (CON).

METHODS: Yorkshire swine fed a standard diet underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor to the left circumflex artery. Two weeks later, the animals received intramyocardial injection of saline (CON; n = 6), starvation-derived EVs (MVM; n = 10), or hypoxia-derived EVs (HYP; n = 7). After 5 weeks, myocardial perfusion was assessed, and left ventricular myocardial tissue was harvested. Protein expression was measured using immunoblotting. Data were analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test or one-way analysis of variance based on the results of a Shapiro-Wilk test. Coronary perfusion was plotted against relative cytokine concentration and analyzed with the Spearman rank-sum test.

RESULTS: HYP EV treatment was associated with decreased expression of proinflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6 (

CONCLUSIONS: HYP EVs and MVM EVs appear to result in relative decreases in the degree of inflammation in chronically ischemic swine myocardium, independent of coronary perfusion. It is possible that this observed decrease may partially explain the myocardial benefits seen with both HYP and MVM EV treatment.



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Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Surgery, Department of Surgery Residents, Fellows and Residents

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