Cardioprotection in cardiovascular surgery.

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Since the invention of cardiopulmonary bypass, cardioprotective strategies have been investigated to mitigate ischemic injury to the heart during aortic cross-clamping and reperfusion injury with cross-clamp release. With advances in cardiac surgical and percutaneous techniques and post-operative management strategies including mechanical circulatory support, cardiac surgeons are able to operate on more complex patients. Therefore, there is a growing need for improved cardioprotective strategies to optimize outcomes in these patients. This review provides an overview of the basic principles of cardioprotection in the setting of cardiac surgery, including mechanisms of cardiac injury in the context of cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by a discussion of the specific approaches to optimizing cardioprotection in cardiac surgery, including refinements in cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegia, ischemic conditioning, use of specific anesthetic and pharmaceutical agents, and novel mechanical circulatory support technologies. Finally, translational strategies that investigate cardioprotection in the setting of cardiac surgery will be reviewed, with a focus on promising research in the areas of cell-based and gene therapy. Advances in this area will help cardiologists and cardiac surgeons mitigate myocardial ischemic injury, improve functional post-operative recovery, and optimize clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.




Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Surgery, Department of Surgery Residents, Fellows and Residents

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