Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis in a Patient Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C.
Systemic vasculitis is a rare but devastating problem in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) further complicates the clinical management. We report a 46-year-old woman coinfected with HCV and HIV with a CD4 count of 950/mm who presented with a life-threatening vasculitis of the lungs, kidneys, and skin and who initially responded after use of corticosteroids and then 2 monthly pulses of i.v. cyclophosphamide. Her condition deteriorated when she was switched to azathioprine. Ultimately, the patient died of neutropenic sepsis. On the basis of our experience and an analysis of the literature, we suggest that monthly pulsed i.v. cyclophosphamide and steroids might be used as an induction therapy, followed by antiviral treatment for patients with HIV, HCV, and a life-threatening ischemic vasculitis if the CD4 count is >400/mm. For patients in this complex condition who are receiving immunosuppressants close surveillance for signs of secondary infection, and prophylactic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, are advised. The use of interferon alpha, ribavirin, i.v. immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis are alternatives for patients with milder vasculitis.
Published In/Presented At
Tikhomirov, V., Trock, D., Sieber, S., & Nazer, K. (1999). Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis in a Patient Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C. Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases, 5(3), 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1097/00124743-199906000-00010
Medicine and Health Sciences
Department of Medicine