A Chronic Increase in Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Facilitates Intraneuronal Deposition of Exogenous Bloodborne Amyloid-Beta1-42 Peptide in the Brain and Leads to Alzheimer's Disease-Relevant Cognitive Changes in a Mouse Model.

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BACKGROUND: Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides (especially Aβ1-42) (Aβ42) have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the nature of their involvement in AD-related neuropathological changes leading to cognitive changes remains poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that chronic extravasation of bloodborne Aβ42 peptide and brain-reactive autoantibodies and their entry into the brain parenchyma via a permeable BBB contribute to AD-related pathological changes and cognitive changes in a mouse model.

METHODS: The BBB was rendered chronically permeable through repeated injections of Pertussis toxin (PT), and soluble monomeric, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled or unlabeled Aβ42 was injected into the tail-vein of 10-month-old male CD1 mice at designated intervals spanning ∼3 months. Acquisition of learned behaviors and long-term retention were assessed via a battery of cognitive and behavioral tests and linked to neuropathological changes.

RESULTS: Mice injected with both PT and Aβ42 demonstrated a preferential deficit in the capacity for long-term retention and an increased susceptibility to interference in selective attention compared to mice exposed to PT or saline only. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increased BBB permeability and entry of bloodborne Aβ42 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) into the brain parenchyma, selective neuronal binding of IgG and neuronal accumulation of Aβ42 in animals injected with both PT and Aβ42 compared to controls.

CONCLUSION: Results highlight the potential synergistic role of BBB compromise and the influx of bloodborne Aβ42 into the brain in both the initiation and progression of neuropathologic and cognitive changes associated with AD.




Medicine and Health Sciences




Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

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