BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is a complication of induction chemotherapy in 10%-50% of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Though hyperglycemia in ALL patients is usually transient, it may be associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the risk factors for and consequences of hyperglycemia are poorly understood. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia significant enough to require insulin therapy during induction chemotherapy would be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in pediatric ALL patients during induction chemotherapy and in subsequent care.
METHODS: We abstracted clinical and resource utilization data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database utilizing ICD-9 codes and medication charges. We used logistic regression analysis to predict the development of hyperglycemia. The effects of hyperglycemia on binary and count adverse outcomes following induction chemotherapy were modeled using mixed-effect regression models.
RESULTS: An increased risk of hyperglycemia requiring insulin was associated with older age, female sex, higher risk group and trisomy 21. Patients on insulin for hyperglycemia had increased mortality following induction chemotherapy. These patients were more likely to have subsequent infectious complications, need for bone marrow transplant, and risk of disease relapse. They also had greater length of inpatient stay, higher cost of care, and were more likely to require intensive care unit admission during induction chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia requiring insulin during induction chemotherapy in pediatric ALL is associated with an increased risk of short-term and long-term complications. Prospective studies are needed to analyze formal screening, preventive measures, and optimal management practices for hyperglycemia during ALL induction chemotherapy.
Published In/Presented At
McCormick, M. C., Sharp, E., Kalpatthi, R., Zullo, J., Gurtunca, N., Zhang, J., Krafty, R., & Raman, S. (2020). Hyperglycemia requiring insulin during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction chemotherapy is associated with increased adverse outcomes and healthcare costs. Pediatric blood & cancer, 67(9), e28475. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28475
Medicine and Health Sciences | Pediatrics
Department of Pediatrics