Same-day confirmation of intrauterine pregnancy failure in women with first- and early second-trimester bleeding.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration in vaginal blood, in the setting of dissolved fetal tissue, is significantly higher than its concentration in the maternal serum.
DESIGN: A prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Medical center.
PATIENT(S): Four groups of women were evaluated: 1) with missed/incomplete miscarriage with vaginal bleeding; 2) with threatened miscarriage; 3) with vaginal bleeding during cerclage placement; and 4) undergoing dilation and curettage (D&C).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): In each patient, AFP concentration in the vaginal blood or in the liquid component of the evacuated products of conception (POC; D&C group) was compared with the AFP concentration in the maternal serum.
RESULT(S): The median (range) concentration ratios of AFP in vaginal blood (or POC) to AFP in maternal serum were 24.5 (5.1-8,620) and 957 (4.6-24,216) for the missed/incomplete (n = 30) and the D&C (n = 22) groups, respectively, whereas they were only 1.2 (0.4-13.4) and 1.01 (0.7-1.5) for the threatened miscarriage (n = 15) and cerclage (n = 9) groups, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity for the detection of the passage of fetal tissue (ratio 4.3, area under the ROC curve 0.96).
CONCLUSION(S): Higher concentrations of AFP in vaginal blood than in maternal serum may indicate the presence of dissolved fetal tissue (i.e., confirming a failed pregnancy).
Published In/Presented At
Mor, A., Tal, R., Haberman, S., Kalgi, B., Nasab, S. H., & Minkoff, H. (2018). Same-day confirmation of intrauterine pregnancy failure in women with first- and early second-trimester bleeding. Fertility and sterility, 109(6), 1060–1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.02.006
Medicine and Health Sciences | Pediatrics
Department of Pediatrics