Association Between Obesity-Mediated Atrial Fibrillation and Therapy With Sodium Channel Blocker Antiarrhythmic Drugs.
IMPORTANCE: The association between obesity, an established risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), and response to antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that obesity differentially mediates response to AADs in patients with symptomatic AF and in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and pacing induced AF.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational cohort study was conducted including 311 patients enrolled in a clinical-genetic registry. Mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks were also evaluated. The study was conducted from January 1, 2018, to June 2, 2019.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Symptomatic response was defined as continuation of the same AAD for at least 3 months. Nonresponse was defined as discontinuation of the AAD within 3 months of initiation because of poor symptomatic control of AF necessitating alternative rhythm control therapy. Outcome measures in DIO mice were pacing-induced AF and suppression of AF after 2 weeks of treatment with flecainide acetate or sotalol hydrochloride.
RESULTS: A total of 311 patients (mean [SD] age, 65  years; 120 women [38.6%]) met the entry criteria and were treated with a class I or III AAD for symptomatic AF. Nonresponse to class I AADs in patients with obesity was less than in those without obesity (30% [obese] vs 6% [nonobese]; difference, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.37; P = .001). Both groups had similar symptomatic response to a potassium channel blocker AAD. On multivariate analysis, obesity, AAD class (class I vs III AAD [obese] odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% Wald CI, 1.84-11.20; P = .001), female vs male sex (OR, 2.31; 95% Wald CI, 1.07-4.99; P = .03), and hyperthyroidism (OR, 4.95; 95% Wald CI, 1.23-20.00; P = .02) were significant indicators of the probability of failure to respond to AADs. Pacing induced AF in 100% of DIO mice vs 30% (P < .001) in controls. Furthermore, DIO mice showed a greater reduction in AF burden when treated with sotalol compared with flecainide (85% vs 25%; P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Results suggest that obesity differentially mediates response to AADs in patients and in mice with AF, possibly reducing the therapeutic effectiveness of sodium channel blockers. These findings may have implications for the management of AF in patients with obesity.
Published In/Presented At
Ornelas-Loredo, A., Kany, S., Abraham, V., Alzahrani, Z., Darbar, F. A., Sridhar, A., Ahmed, M., Alamar, I., Menon, A., Zhang, M., Chen, Y., Hong, L., Konda, S., & Darbar, D. (2020). Association Between Obesity-Mediated Atrial Fibrillation and Therapy With Sodium Channel Blocker Antiarrhythmic Drugs. JAMA cardiology, 5(1), 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4513
Medicine and Health Sciences | Pediatrics
Department of Pediatrics